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Saturday, September 29, 2018

BONE CANCER-CAUSES, SYMPTOMS AND TYPES



                            


WHAT IS BONE

Our body consists of more than 200 bones. Bones are made up of cells called osteocytes, which are bound together by a calcium-like material. Bones are filled with a spongy material called bone marrow. Bones basically support our body and also protect some important organs, such as heart and lungs. Even our brain is protected by the skull. 

WHAT IS BONE CANCER

Bone cancer can either be Primary or a Secondary cancer. Primary bone cancer, which starts in any bone of the body, is normally very rare. Primary bone cancer commonly affects the pelvis or the long bones in the arms and legs. 

Secondary bone cancer is the most common one, which starts somewhere else in the body and spreads (metastasize) to the bone. These cancers are named for where they began, such as breast cancer that has metastasized to the bone. Besides this, some other common cancers that spread to the bone are cancers of the breast, prostate, lung, kidney and thyroid.

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF BONE CANCER

Signs and symptoms of bone cancer include:
1-      If you have pain in the bones which comes and goes, becomes worse at night and often not helped by over-the-counter pain relievers, then you should see your doctor to make sure if these are not the symptoms of Bone cancer.
2-      Swelling and tenderness near the affected area is another major symptom that leads to Bone cancer.
3-      Weakened bone, leading to fracture, can’t be ignored as it may be a sign of Bone cancer.
4-      Normally fatigue is not related to any type of cancer, but if it persists you should go and see your doctor.
5-      Unintended weight loss should never be ignored as it can be a warning sign of you having Bone cancer.

CAUSES OF BONE CANCER

Though causes of Bone cancer is yet to be determined, but only a small number of bone cancer is related to hereditary and others are normally related to previous radiation exposure.

TYPES OF BONE CANCER

Multiple Myeloma (MM)
Multiple myeloma is the most common type of bone cancer. It occurs when cancer cells grow in the bone marrow and cause tumors in various bones. MM usually affects older adults.

Osteosarcoma (Osteogenic Sarcoma)
Osteosarcoma, or osteogenic sarcoma, generally affects children and adolescents, but it can also occur in adults. It has a tendency to originate at the tips of the long bones in the arms and legs. Osteosarcoma may also start in the hips, shoulders, or other locations. It affects the hard tissue that provides the outer layer of your bones. In rare circumstances, osteosarcomas can arise outside of bones (extra skeletal osteosarcomas).
Chondrosarcoma
Chondrosarcoma is the second most common form of bone cancer. It may occur in the pelvis, thigh areas, and shoulders of older adults. It forms in the subchondral tissue, which is the tough connective tissue between your bones.
Ewing’s Sarcoma
Ewing’s sarcoma is a rare cancer that either begins in the soft tissues surrounding the bones or directly in the bones of children and young adults. The long bones of the body, such as the arms and legs, and the pelvis are commonly affected.

DIAGNOSING BONE CANCER

Your doctor may use the following methods to diagnose and determine the stage of cancers in the bones:

·         A biopsy, which analyzes a small sample of tissue to diagnose cancer
·         A bone scan, which checks the condition of the bones
·         A blood test
·         Imaging testing that includes X-rays, MRI scans, and CT scans to get in-depth views of the bones’ structure

TREATMENT OF BONE CANCER

Treatment for cancer that has spread to the bones depends on where the cancer started and the extent of the spread. The decision to use surgery, chemotherapy or radiation therapy is based on the type of bone cancer being treated. Various medication is also given to treat bone cancer and to relieve from pain and inflammation.

Though whatever may be the stage and type of Bone cancer someone has, it is always better to see your doctor and go for a regular medical check-up to prevent yourself for any such disease.